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Project Jupyter (/ˈpɪtər/ (listen)) is a project with goals to develop open-source software, open standards, and services for interactive computing across multiple programming languages. It was spun off from IPython in 2014 by Fernando Pérez and Brian Granger. Project Jupyter's name is a reference to the three core programming languages supported by Jupyter, which are Julia, Python and R. Its name and logo are an homage to Galileo's discovery of the moons of Jupiter, as documented in notebooks attributed to Galileo. Project Jupyter has developed and supported the interactive computing products Jupyter Notebook, JupyterHub, and JupyterLab. Jupyter is financially sponsored by NumFOCUS.[1]


A manuscript ascribed to Galileo Galilei's observations of Jupiter (⊛) and four of its moons (✱), which inspired the Jupyter logo

The first version of Notebooks for IPython was released in 2011 by a team including Fernando Pérez, Brian Granger, and Min Ragan-Kelley.[2] In 2014, Pérez announced a spin-off project from IPython called Project Jupyter.[3] IPython continues to exist as a Python shell and a kernel for Jupyter, while the notebook and other language-agnostic parts of IPython moved under the Jupyter name.[4][5] Jupyter supports execution environments (called "kernels") in several dozen languages, including Julia, R, Haskell, Ruby, and Python (via the IPython kernel).

In 2015, about 200,000 Jupyter notebooks were available on GitHub. By 2018, about 2.5 million were available.[6] In January 2021, nearly 10 million were available, including notebooks about the first observation of gravitational waves[7] and about the 2019 discovery of a supermassive black hole.[8]

Major cloud computing providers have adopted the Jupyter Notebook or derivative tools as a frontend interface for cloud users. Examples include Amazon SageMaker Notebooks,[9] Google's Colaboratory,[10][11] and Microsoft's Azure Notebook.[12]

Visual Studio Code supports local development of Jupyter notebooks. As of July 2022, the Jupyter extension for VS Code has been downloaded over 40 million times, making it the second-most popular extension in the VS Code Marketplace.[13]

The Atlantic published an article entitled "The Scientific Paper Is Obsolete" in 2018, discussing the role of Jupyter Notebook and the Mathematica notebook in the future of scientific publishing.[14] Economist Paul Romer, in response, published a blog post in which he reflected on his experiences using Mathematica and Jupyter for research, concluding in part that Jupyter "does a better job of delivering what Theodore Gray had in mind when he designed the Mathematica notebook."[15]

In 2021, Nature named Jupyter as one of ten computing projects that transformed science.[8]

Jupyter Notebook

Jupyter Notebook interface

Jupyter Notebook (formerly IPython Notebook) is a web-based interactive computational environment for creating notebook documents. Jupyter Notebook is built using several open-source libraries, including IPython, ZeroMQ, Tornado, jQuery, Bootstrap, and MathJax. A Jupyter Notebook document is a browser-based REPL containing an ordered list of input/output cells which can contain code, text (using Markdown), mathematics, plots and rich media. Underneath the interface, a notebook is a JSON document, following a versioned schema, usually ending with the ".ipynb" extension.

Jupyter Notebook is similar to the notebook interface of other programs such as Maple, Mathematica, and SageMath, a computational interface style that originated with Mathematica in the 1980s. Jupyter interest overtook the popularity of the Mathematica notebook interface in early 2018.[14]

JupyterLab is a newer user interface for Project Jupyter, offering a flexible user interface and more features than the classic notebook UI. The first stable release was announced on February 20, 2018.[16][17] In 2015, a joint $6 million grant from The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust, The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation funded work that led to expanded capabilities of the core Jupyter tools, as well as to the creation of JupyterLab.[18]

JupyterHub is a multi-user server for Jupyter Notebooks. It is designed to support many users by spawning, managing, and proxying many singular Jupyter Notebook servers.[19]


See also


  1. ^ "NumFOCUS Sponsored Projects". NumFOCUS. Retrieved 2021-10-25.
  2. ^ Vu, Linda (June 14, 2021). "Project Jupyter: A Computer Code that Transformed Science". Berkeley Lab Computing Sciences. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  3. ^ "Project Jupyter // Speaker Deck".
  4. ^ "The Notebook, Qt console and a number of other pieces are now parts of Jupyter". GitHub. 29 May 2021.
  5. ^ "The Big Split™". 28 August 2017.
  6. ^ Perkel, Jeffrey M. (October 30, 2018). "Why Jupyter is data scientists' computational notebook of choice". Nature. pp. 145–146. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-07196-1. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  7. ^ "LIGO Open Science Center". Retrieved 2018-05-04.
  8. ^ a b Perkel, Jeffrey M. (January 20, 2021). "Ten computer codes that transformed science". Nature. pp. 344–348. doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00075-2. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  9. ^ Gallagher, Sean (August 15, 2022). "Machine learning, concluded: Did the "no-code" tools beat manual analysis?". Ars Technica. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  10. ^ Sherrer, Kara (May 25, 2022). "Google Colab vs Jupyter Notebook: Compare data science software". TechRepublic. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  11. ^ "Nerds rejoice: Google just released its internal tool to collaborate on AI". Quartz. Retrieved 2018-09-06.
  12. ^ Wayner, Peter (May 5, 2022). "Essential data science tools for elevating your analytics operations". CIO. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  13. ^ Ramel, David (July 12, 2022). "VS Code and Python: A Natural Fit for Data Science -". Visual Studio Magazine. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  14. ^ a b Somers, James. "The Scientific Paper Is Obsolete". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
  15. ^ Romer, Paul. "Jupyter, Mathematica, and the Future of the Research Paper". Retrieved 2018-04-15.
  16. ^ "JupyterLab is Ready for Users". Jupyter Blog. 2018-02-20. Retrieved 2018-05-04.
  17. ^ Brust, Andrew (February 24, 2018). "Data science notebooks get real: JupyterLab releases to users". ZDNet. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  18. ^ "UC Berkeley and Cal Poly to Expand and Enhance Open-Source Software for Scientific Computing and Data Science | Helmsley Charitable Trust". Archived from the original on 2020-01-03. Retrieved 2018-05-03.
  19. ^ Lahoti, Sugandha (May 6, 2019). "JupyterHub 1.0 releases with named servers, support for TLS encryption and more". Packt Hub. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  20. ^ 2012 Free Software Award winners announced
  21. ^ "Free Software Awards für IPython und OpenMRS | heise open" (in German).
  22. ^ "Software System Award". ACM Awards. Association for Computing Machinery. Retrieved April 28, 2016.

External links